GrazeLIFE – Literature review

Reference list

Adler, P., Raff, D. & Lauenroth, W. (2001). The effect of grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation. Oecologia         128, 465-479.

Alday, J. G., Santana, V. M., Lee, H., Allen, K. A. & Marrs, R. H. (2015). Above-ground biomass accumulation patterns in moorlands after prescribed burning and low-intensity grazing. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 17, 388–396.

Allan, E., Manning, P., Alt, F., Binkenstein, J., Blaser, S. … Fischer, M. (2015). Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition. Ecology Letters 18, 834-843.

Andresen, H., Bakker, J. P., Brongers, M., Heydemann, B. & Irmler, U. (1990). Long-term changes of salt marsh communities by cattle grazing. Vegetatio 89, 137-148.

Andriuzzi, W. S. & Wall, D. H. (2018). Soil biological responses to, and feedbacks on, rewilding. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 20170448.

Asner, G. P. & Archer, S. R. (2010). Livestock and the global carbon cycle. In:Steinfeld, H., Mooney, H., Schneider, F. & Neville, N. (eds).  Livestock in a changing landscape: drivers, consequences, and responses. Island Press.

Bachelet, D., Lenihan, J. M., Daly, C., & Neilson, R. P. (2000). Interactions between fire, grazing and climate change at Wind Cave National Park, SD. Ecological Modelling 134, 229–244.

Bakker, E. S., Ritchie, M. E., Olff, H., Milchunas, D. G. & Knops, J. M. H. (2006). Herbivore impact on grassland plant diversity depends on habitat productivity and herbivore size. Ecology Letters 9, 780-788.

Balčiauskas, L., Kazlauskas, M. & Balčiauskienė, L. (2017). European bison: changes in species acceptance following plans for translocation. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 63, 1–9.

Bashan, D. & Bar-Massada, A. (2017). Regeneration dynamics of woody vegetation in a Mediterranean landscape under different disturbance-based management treatments. Applied Vegetation Science 20, 106–114.

Beja, P., Schindler, S., Santana, J., Porto, M., Morgado, R., Moreira, F., Pita, R., Mira, A. & Reino, L. (2014). Predators and livestock reduce bird nest survival in intensive Mediterranean farmland. European Journal of Wildlife Research 60, 249-258.

Bernes, C., Bråthen, K. A., Forbes, B. C., Speed, J. D. M. & Moen, J. (2015). What are the impacts of reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.) on arctic and alpine vegetation? A systematic review. Environmental Evidence 4, 4.

Bondi, G., Peruzzi, E., Macci, C., Masciandaro, G. & Pistoia, A. (2015). Changes in soil organic matter associated with pig rearing: influence of stocking densities and land gradient on forest soils in Central Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 211, 32-42.

Brady, E. (2006). The aesthetics of agricultural landscapes and the relationship between humans and nature. Ethics, Place and Environment, 9, 1–19.

Bruegger, R. A., Varelas, L. A., Howery, L. D., Torell, L. A., Stephenson, M. B. & Bailey, D. W. (2016). Targeted Grazing in Southern Arizona: Using Cattle to Reduce Fine Fuel Loads. Rangeland Ecology and Management 69, 43–51.

Bünemann, E. K., Bongiorno, G., Bai, Z., Creamer, R. E., De Deyn, G. … Brussaard, L. (2018). Soil quality – A critical review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 120, 105-125.

Byrnes, R. C., Eastburn, D. J., Tate, K. W. & Roche, L. M. (2018). A global meta-analysis of grazing impacts on soil health indicators. Journal of Environmental Quality 47, 758-765.

Calleja, J. A., Escolà, M., Carvalho, J., Forcadell, J. M., Serrano, E. & Bartolomé, J. (2019). Cattle grazing fails to control shrub encroachment in Mediterranean Landscapes. Rangeland Ecology and Management 72, 803-811.

Celaya, R., Jáuregui, B. M., García, R. R., Benavides, R., García, U. & Osoro, K. (2010). Changes in heathland vegetation under goat grazing: Effects of breed and stocking rate. Applied Vegetation Science, 13, 125–134.

Celaya, R., Martínez, A., & Osoro, K. (2007). Vegetation dynamics in Cantabrian heathlands associated with improved pasture areas under single or mixed grazing by sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 72, 165–177.

Conant, R. T., Cerri, C. E. P., Osborne, B. B. & Paustian, K. (2017). Grassland management impacts on soil carbon stocks: a new synthesis. Ecological Applications 27, 662-668.

Corlett, R. T. (2016). The Role of Rewilding in Landscape Design for Conservation. Current Landscape Ecology Reports 1, 127–133.

Cromsigt, J. P. G. M., te Beest, M., Kerley, G. I. H., Landman, M., le Roux, E. & Smith, F. A. (2018). Trophic rewilding as a climate change mitigation strategy? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 373, 20170440.

Crowther, T. W.,  van den Hoogen, J., Wan, J., Mayes, M. A., Keiser, A. D., Mo, L., Averill, C. & Maynard, D. S. (2019). The global soil community and its influence on biogeochemistry. Science 365, 772.

de Bello, F., Lepš, J. & Sebastià, M.-T. (2007). Grazing effects on the species-area relationship: variation along a climatic gradient in NE Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science 18, 25-34.

DeSilvey, C. & Bartolini, N. (2019). Where horses run free? Autonomy, temporality and rewilding in the Côa Valley, Portugal. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 44, 94–109.

Doboszewski, P., Doktór, D., Jaworski, Z., Kalski, R., Kułakowska, G., Łojek, J., … Górecka-Bruzda, A. (2017). Konik Polski horses as a mean of biodiversity maintenance in post-agricultural and forest areas: An overview of polish experiences. Animal Science Papers and Reports 35, 333–347.

Doran, J. W. (2002). Soil health and global sustainability: translating science into practice. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 88, 119-127.

EIP-AGRI (2017). EIP-AGRI Focus Group Reducing emissions from cattle farming Final Report. Accessed from:

EIP-AGRI (2018). EIP-AGRI Focus Group Grazing for carbon Final Report. Accessed from:

Eychenne, C. & Lazaro, L. (2014). Summer pastures: between “commons” and “public goods.” Revue de Géographie Alpine 102, 0–12.

Endress, B. A., Wisdom, M. J., Vavra, M., Parks, C. G., Dick, B. L., Naylor, B. J. & Boyd, J. M. (2012). Effects of ungulate herbivory on aspen, cottonwood, and willow development under forest fuels treatment regimes. Forest Ecology and Management 276, 33–40.

Eurostat. (2017). Archive: Agri-environmental indocator – greenhouse gas emmissions. Obtained from

Eze, S., Palmer, S. M. & Chapman, P. J. (2018). Soil organic carbon in grasslands: effects of inorganic fertilizers, liming and grazing in different climate settings. Journal of Environmental Management 223, 74-84.

Fares, S., Bajocco, S., Salvati, L., Camarretta, N., Dupuy, J. L., Xanthopoulos, G., … Corona, P. (2017). Characterizing potential wildland fire fuel in live vegetation in the Mediterranean region. Annals of Forest Science 74, 1.

Farris, E., Filigheddu, R., Deiana, P., Farris, G. A. & Garau, G. (2010). Short-term effects of sheep pasture land due to grazing abandonment in a Western Mediterranean island ecosystem: A multidisciplinary approach. Journal for Nature Conservation 18, 258-267.

Filalozza, A., Brown, C., Dettlaff, M. A., Batbaatar, A., Grenke, J. … Cahill, J. F. (2020). The effects of livestock grazing on biodiversity are multitrophic: a meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 23, 1298-1309.

Floate, K. D., Wardhaugh, K. G., Boxall, A. B. A., & Sherratt, T. N. (2005). Fecal residues of veterinary parasiticides: Nontarget Effects in the Pasture Environment. Annual Review of Entomology, 50, 153–179.

Foster, C. N., Barton, P. S. & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2014). Effects of large native herbivores on other animals. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 929–938.

Fowler, F., Gillespie, C. J., Denning, S., Hu, S. & Watson, W. (2020). Mixing the message: do dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) affect dung-generated greenhouse gas emissions? BioRxiv, DOI: 10.1101/2020.11.19.389601.

Francini, G., Liiri, M., Männistö, M., Stark, S. & Kytöviita, M.-M. (2014). Response to reindeer grazing removal depends on soil characteristics in low Arctic meadows. Applied Soil Ecology 76, 14-25.

Garrido, P., Edenius, L., Mikusiński, G., Skarin, A., Jansson, A. & Thulin, C. G. (2020). Experimental rewilding may restore abandoned wood-pastures if policy allows. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-020-01320-0.

Gao, J. & Carmel, Y. (2020). A global meta-analysis of grazing effects on plant species richness. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 302, 107072.

Genovese, D., Culasso, F., Giacosa, E. & Battaglini, L. M. (2017). Can livestock farming and tourism coexist in mountain regions? A new business model for sustainability. Sustainability, 9, 1–21.

Gish, M., Ben-Ari, M. & Inbar, M. (2017). Direct consumptive interactions between mammalian herbivores and plant-dwelling invertebrates: prevalence, significance, and prospectus. Oecologia 183, 347-352.

Greaves, T. (2019). Movement, wildness and animal aesthetics. Environmental Values, 28, 449–470.

Hardy, C. C. (2005). Wildland fire hazard and risk: Problems, definitions, and context. Forest Ecology and Management 211, 73–82.

Hazell, P. B. R. (2009). The Asian green revolution. IFPRI Discussion Paper. Intl Food Policy Research Inst.

Herrero-Jáuregui & Oesterheld, M. (2018). Effects of grazing intensity on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis. Oikos 127, 757-766.

IPCC. (2018). Summary for policymakers. In: Global warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H. O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P. R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J. B. R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M. I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, T. Waterfield (eds.)]. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 32 pp.

James, M. B. & Donnelly, A. (2004). Carbon sequestration in temperate grassland ecosystems and the influence of management, climate and elevated CO2. New Phytologist 164, 423-439.

Jauregui, B. M., Garcia, U., Osoro, K. & Celaya, R. (2009). Sheep and Goat Grazing Effects on Three Atlantic Heathland Types. Rangeland Ecology & Management 62, 119–126.

Jauregui, B. M., Rosa-Garcia, R., Garcia, U., WallisDeVries, M. F., Osoro, K. & Celaya, R. (2008). Effects of stocking density and breed of goats on vegetation and grasshopper occurrence in heathlands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 123, 219–224.

Jepson, P. (2016). A rewilding agenda for Europe: Creating a network of experimental reserves. Ecography 39, 117-124.

Jerrentrup, J. S., Wrage-Mönnig, N., Röver, K.-U. & Isselstein, J. (2014). Grazing intensity affects insect diversity via sward structure and heterogeneity in a long-term experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology 51, 968-977.

Joern, A. & Laws, A. N. (2012). Ecological Mechanisms Underlying Arthropod Species Diversity in Grasslands. Annual Review of Entomology, 58, 19–36.

Johnson, C. N., Prior, L. D., Archibald, S., Poulos, H. M., Barton, A. M., Williamson, G. J., & Bowman, D. M. J. S. (2018). Can trophic rewilding reduce the impact of fire in a more flammable world? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 373, 20170443.

Johnston, E. A., Poulton, P. R. & Coleman, K. (2009). Chapter 1 Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes. Advances in Agronomy 101, 1-57.

Jorgensen, B. S. & Stedman, R. C. (2001). Sense of Place as an attitude: Lakeshore owners attitudes toward their properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 233–248.

Kalabokidis, K. D., Koutsias, N., Konstantinidis, P. & Vasilakos, C. (2007). Multivariate analysis of landscape wildfire dynamics in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Greece. Area 39, 392–402.

Klumpp, K., Fontaine, S., Attard, E., Le Roux, X., Gleixner, G. & Soussana, J.-F. (2009). Grazing triggers soil carbon loss by altering plant roots and their control on soil microbial community. Journal of Ecology 97, 876-885.

Koninx, F. (2018). Ecotourism and rewilding: the case of Swedish Lapland. Journal of Ecotourism, 0, 1–16.

Kooijman, A. M., Cusell, C., van Mourik, J. & Reijman, T. (2016). Restoration of former agricultural fields on acid sandy soils: conversion to heathland, rangeland or forest? Ecological Engineering 93, 55-65.

Köster, E., Köster, K., Aurela, M., Laurila, T., Berninger, F., Lohila, A. & Pampanen, J. (2013). Impact of reindeer herding on vegetation biomass and soil carbon content: a case study from Sodankylä, Finland. Boreal Environment Research 18, 35-42.

Kramer, K., Groen, T. A. & Van Wieren, S. E. (2003). The interacting effects of ungulates and fire on forest dynamics: An analysis using the model FORSPACE. Forest Ecology and Management 181, 205–222.

Kruess, A. & Tscharntke, T. (2002). Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and wasps. Conservation Biology 16, 1570-1580.

Koerner, S. E., Smith, M. D., Burkepile, D. E., Hanan, N. P., Avolio, M. L. … Zelikova, T. J. (2018). Change in dominance determines herbivore effects on plant biodiversity. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2, 1925-1932.

Lasanta, T., Khorchani, M., Pérez-Cabello, F., Errea, P., Sáenz-Blanco, R. & Nadal-Romero, E. (2018). Clearing shrubland and extensive livestock farming: Active prevention to control wildfires in the Mediterranean mountains. Journal of Environmental Management, 227, 256–266.

Lavorel, S., Grigulis, K., Lamarque, P., Colace, M.-P., Garden, D. … Douzet, R. (2011). Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services. Journal of Ecology 99, 135-147.

Lecomte, X., Caldeira, M. C., Catry, F. X., Fernandes, P. M., Jackson, R. B. & Bugalho, M. N. (2019). Ungulates mediate trade-offs between carbon storage and wildfire hazard in Mediterranean oak woodlands. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56, 699–710.

Leifeld, J. & Fuhrer, J. (2009). Long-term management effects on soil organic matter in two cold, high-elevation grasslands: clues from fractionation and radiocarbon dating. European Journal of Soil Science 60, 230-239.

Leonard, S., Kirkpatrick, J. & Marsden-Smedley, J. (2010). Variation in the effects of vertebrate grazing on fire potential between grassland structural types. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 876–883.

Loepfe, L., Martinez-Vilalta, J., Oliveres, J., Piñol, J. & Lloret, F. (2010). Feedbacks between fuel reduction and landscape homogenisation determine fire regimes in three Mediterranean areas. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 2366–2374.

López-Díaz, M. L., Benítez, R. & Moreno, G. (2017). How do management techniques affect carbon stock in intensive hardwood plantations? Forest Ecology and Management 389, 228-239.

López-Santiago, C. A., Oteros-Rozas, E., Martín-López, B., Plieninger, T., Martín, E. G. & González, J. A. (2014). Using visual stimuli to explore the social perceptions of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes: The case of transhumance in Mediterranean Spain. Ecology and Society, 19, 27.

Lovreglio, R., Meddour-Sahar, O. & Leone, V. (2014). Goat grazing as a wildfire prevention tool: A basic review. iForest 7, 260–268.

Luoto, M., Pykälä, J. & Kuussaari, M. (2003). Decline of landscape-scale habitat and species diversity after the end of cattle grazing. Journal for Nature Conservation 11, 171-178.

Maldonado, A. D., Ramos-López, D. & Aguilera, P. A. (2019). The role of cultural landscapes in the delivery of provisioning ecosystem services in protected areas. Sustainability, 11, 1–18.

Mancilla-Leytón, J. & Vicente, Á. M. (2012). Biological fire prevention method: Evaluating the effects of goat grazing on the fire-prone mediterranean scrub. Forest Systems 21, 199–204.

Martino, S. & Muenzel, D. (2018). The economic value of high nature value farming and the importance of the Common Agricultural Policy in sustaining income: The case study of the Natura 2000 Zarandul de Est (Romania). Journal of Rural Studies 60, 176–187.

McLauchlan, K. K., Higuera, P. E., Miesel, J., Rogers, B. M., Schweitzer, J., Shuman, J. K., … Watts, A. C. (2020). Fire as a fundamental ecological process: Research advances and frontiers. Journal of Ecology 108, 2047– 2069.

McNaughton, S. J. (1991). Grazing as an optimization process: grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengeti. American Naturalist 113, 697-703.

McSherry, M. E. & Ritchie, M. E. (2013). Effects of grazing on grassland soil carbon: a global review. Global Change Biology 19, 1347-1357.

Medina-Roldán, E., Paz-Ferreiro, J. & Bardgett, R. D. (2012). Grazing exclusion affects soil and plant communities, but has no impact on soil carbon storage in an upland grassland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 149, 118-123.

Middleton, B. A., Holsten, B. & van Diggelen, R. (2009). Biodiversity management of fens and fen meadows by grazing, cutting and burning. Journal of Vegetation Science 9, 307-316.

Milcu, A. I., Hanspach, J., Abson, D. & Fischer, J. (2013). Cultural ecosystem services: a literature review and prospects for future research. Ecology and Society 18, 44.

Mitsopoulos, I. D. & Dimitrakopoulos, A. P. (2017). Effect of fuel treatments on crown fire behavior in Aleppo pine forests of Greece: A simulation study. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16, 1507–1514.

Moreira, F., Viedma, O., Arianoutsou, M., Curt, T., Koutsias, N., Rigolot, E., … Bilgili, E. (2011). Landscape – wildfire interactions in southern Europe: Implications for landscape management. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 2389–2402.

Morgan-Davies, C., Waterhouse, A., Pollock, M. L. & Holland, J. P. (2008). Integrating hill sheep production and newly established native woodland: Achieving sustainability through multiple land use in Scotland. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 6, 133–147.

Navarro, A., & López-Bao, J. V. (2019). EU agricultural policy still not green. Nature Sustainability 2, 990.

Navarro, L. M. & Pereira, H. M. (2012). Rewilding Abandoned Landscapes in Europe. Ecosystems 15, 900–912.

Naveed, M., Herath, L., Moldrup, P., Arthur, E., Nicolaisen, M., Norgaard, T., Ferré, T. P. A. & de Jonge, L. W. (2016). Spatial variability of microbial richness and diversity and relationships with soil organic carbon, texture and structure across an agricultural field. Applied Soil Ecology 103, 44-55.

Ne’eman, G., Perevolotsky, A. & Schiller, G. (1997). The management implications of the Mt. Carmel research project. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7, 343–350.

Nogués-Bravo, D., Simberloff, D., Rahbek, C. & Sanders, N. J. (2016). Rewilding is the new Pandora’s box in conservation. Current Biology 26, R87-R91.

Nuñez, C. M. V, Scorolli, A., Lagos, L., Berman, D. & Kane, A. J. (2016). Management of Free-Roaming Horses. In: Ransom, J. I. & Kaczensky, P. (eds). Wild equids: Ecology, Management, and Conservation. The John Hopkins University Press.

Oesterheld, M. & McNaughton, S. J. (1991). Effect of stress and time for recovery on the amount of compensatory growth after grazing. Oecologia85, 305-313.

Olff, H. & Ritchie, M. E. (1998). Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13, 261-265.

Olff, H., Vera, F. W. M., Bokdam, J., Bakker, E. S., Gleichman, J. M., De Maeyer, K., & Smit, R. (1999). Shifting mosaics in grazed woodlands driven by the alternation of plant facilitation and competition. Plant Biology, 1, 127–137.

Oteros-Rozas, E., Martín-Lopez, B., González, J. A., Plieninger, T., Lopez, C. A. & Montes, C. (2014). Socio-cultural valuation of ecosystem services in a transhumance social-ecological network. Regional Environmental Change 14, 1269–1289.

Oteros-Rozas, E., Martín-López, B., López, C. A., Palomo, I. & González, J. A. (2013). Envisioning the future of transhumant pastoralism through participatory scenario planning: a case study in Spain. The Rangeland Journal 35, 251–272.

Papini, R., Valboa, G., Favilli, F. & L’Abate, G. (2011). Influence of land use on organic carbon pool and chemical properties of Vertic Cambisols in central and southern Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 140, 68-79.

Pausas, J. G. & Keeley, J. E. (2014). Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes. Ecosystems 17, 1109–1120.

Pe’er, G., Bonn, A., Bruelheide, H., Dieker, P., Eisenhauer, N., Feindt, P. H., … Lakner, S. (2020). Action needed for the EU Common Agricultural Policy to address sustainability challenges. People and Nature, 2, 1–12.

Pe’er, G., Zinnegrebe, Y., Hauck, J., Schindler, S., Dittrich, A. … Lakner, S. (2017). Adding some green to the greening: improving the EU’s ecological focus areas for biodiversity and farmers. Conservation Letters 10, 517-530.

Perino, A., Pereira, H. M., Navarro, L. M., Fernández, N., Bullock, J. M., Ceauşu, S., … Wheeler, H. C. (2019). Rewilding complex ecosystems. Science, 364 (6438).

Perpiña Castillo, C., Kavalov, B., Diogo, V., Jacobs-Crisioni, C., Batista e Silva, F. & Lavalle, C. (2018). JRC113718. European Commission.

Plieninger, T., Hartel, T., Martín-López, B., Beaufoy, G., Bergmeier, E., Kirby, K. … Van Uytvanck, J. (2015). Wood-pastures of Europe: Geographic coverage, social-ecological values, conservation management, and policy implications. Biological Conservation 190, 70–79.

Pöyry, J., Luoto, M., Paukkunen, J., Pykälä, J., Raatikainen, K. & Kuussaari, M. (2006). Different responses of plants and herbivore insects to a gradient of vegetation height: an indicator of vertebrate grazing intensity and successional age. Oikos 115, 401-412.

Prior, J. & Brady, E. (2017). Environmental Aesthetics and Rewilding. Environmental Values, 26, 31–51.

Proulx, M., & Mazumder, A. (1998). Reversal of grazing impact on plant species richness in nutrient-poor vs. nutrient-rich ecosystems. Ecology 79, 2581–2592.

Raatikainen, K. J. & Barron, E. S. (2017). Current agri-environmental policies dismiss varied perceptions and discourses on management of traditional rural biotopes. Land Use Policy 69, 564–576.

Redpath, S. M., Bhatia, S. & Young, J. (2015). Tilting at wildlife: reconsidering human-wildlife conflict. Oryx 49, 222-225.

Richmond, A. S., Wylie, A. R. G., Laidlaw, A. S. & Lively, F. O. (2015). Methane emmissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands. Animal 9, 130-137.

Ripoll-Bosch, R., de Boer, I. J. M., Bernués, A. & Vellinga, T. V. (2013). Accounting for multi-functionality of sheep farming in the carbon footprint of lamb: A comparison of three contrasting Mediterranean systems. Agricultural Systems 116, 60–68.

Robertson, A., Tirado, C., Lobstein, T., Jermini, M., Knai, C., Jensen, J. H., Ferro-Luzzi, A. & James, W. P. T. (2004). Food and health in Europe: a new basis for action. WHO Regional Publications, European Series no. 96. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Rosa García, R., Fraser, M. D., Celaya, R., Mendes Ferreira, L. M., García, U. & Osoro, K. (2013). Grazing land management and biodiversity in the Atlantic European heathlands: a review. Agroforstry Systems 87, 19-43.

Rouet-Leduc, J. & von Essen, E. (2019). The Compromises of Rewilding in Swedish Laponia: Implications for Nature Reconciliation. The Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies 17, 38-54.

Ruiz-Mirazo, J. (2011). Environmental benefits of extensive livestock farming: wildfire prevention and beyond. In: Bernués, A., Boutonnet, J. P., Casasús, I., Chentouf, M., Gabiña, D., Joy, M. … Pacheco, F. Economic, social and environmental sustainability in sheep and goat production systems.

Ruiz-Mirazo, J., Martínez-Fernández, J. & Vega-García, C. (2012). Pastoral wildfires in the Mediterranean: Understanding their linkages to land cover patterns in managed landscapes. Journal of Environmental Management 98, 43–50.

Savian, J. V., Neto, A. B., de David, D. B., Bremm, C., Três Schons, R. M. … de Faccio Carvalho, P. C. (2014). Grazing intensity and stocking methods on animal production and methane emission by grazing sheep: implications for integrated crop-livestock system. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 190, 112-119.

Scharlemann, J. P. W., Tanner, E. V. J., Hiederer, R. & Kapos, V. (2014). Global soil carbon: understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool. Carbon Management 5, 81-91.

Schwartz, K. Z. S. (2005). Wild horses in a “European wilderness”: Imagining sustainable development in the post-Communist countryside. Cultural Geographies 12, 292–320.

Sitters, J., Kimuyu, D. M., Young, T. P., Claeys, P. & Olde Venterink, H. (2020). Negative effects of cattle on soil carbon and nutrient pools reversed by megaherbivores. Nature Sustainability 3, 360-366.

Sitters, J., Wubs, E. R. J., Bakker, E. S., Crowther, T. W., Adler, P. B. … Veen, G. F. (2019). Nutrient availability controls the impact of mammalian herbivores on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in grasslands. Global Change Biology 26, 2060-2071.

Smith, F. A., Lyons, S. K., Wagner, P. J. & Elliott, S. (2015). The importance of considering animal body mass in IPCC greenhouse inventories and the underappreciated role of wild herbivores. Global Change Biology 21, 3880-3888.

Smith, S. W., Vandenberghe, C., Hastings, A., Johnson, D., Pakeman, R. J., van der Wal, R. & Woodin, S. J. (2014). Optimizing carbon storage within a spatially heterogeneous upland grassland through sheep grazing management. Ecosystems 17, 418-429.

Soulé, M. & Noss, P. (1998). Rewilding and biodiversity: complementary goals for continental conservation. Wild Earth 8, 1-11.

Soussana, J. F., Tallec, T. & Blanfort, V. (2010). Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands. Animal 4, 334-350.

Stark, S., Männistö, M. K. & Smolander, A. (2010). Multiple effects of reindeer grazing on the soil processes in nutrient-poor northern boreal forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42, 2068-2077.

Starns, H. D., Fuhlendorf, S. D., Elmore, R. D., Twidwell, D., Thacker, E. T., Hovick, T. J. & Luttbeg, B. (2019). Recoupling fire and grazing reduces wildland fuel loads on rangelands. Ecosphere 10, e02578.

Stuart, A. J. & Lister, A. M. (2007). Patterns of late quaternary megafaunal extinctions in Europe and northern Asia. CFS Courier-Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 259, 287-297.

Suominen, O. & Olofsson, J. (2000). Impacts of semi-domesticated reindeer on structure of tundra and forest communities in fennoscandia: a review. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 37, 233–249.

Surová, D., Ravera, F., Guiomar, N., Martínez Sastre, R. & Pinto-Correia, T. (2018). Contributions of Iberian Silvo-Pastoral Landscapes to the Well-Being of Contemporary Society. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 71, 560–570.

Svenning, J.-C. (2002). A review of natural vegetation openness in north-western Europe. Biological Conservation 104, 133-148.

Svenning, J.-C., Pedersen, P. B. M., Donlan, C. J., Ejrnæs, R., Faurby, S. … Vera, F. W. M. (2016). Science for a wilder Anthropocene: synthesis and future directions for trophic rewilding research. Proceedings of the National Academy of the USA 113, 898-906.

Swift, M. J., Heal, O. W. & Anderson, J. M. (1979). Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Takagi, S., & Miyashita, T. (2014). Scale and system dependencies of indirect effects of large herbivores on phytophagous insects: A meta-analysis. Population Ecology, 56, 435–445.

Tanetztap, A. J. & Coomes, D. A. (2012). Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems: do browsing and grazing herbivores matter? Biological Reviews87, 72-94.

Tsiouvaras, C. N., Havlik, N. A. & Bartolome, J. W. (1989). Effects of goats on understory vegetation and fire hazard reduction in a coastal forest in California. Forest Science 35, 1125–1131.

Valderrábano, J. & Torrano, L. (2000). The potential for using goats to control Genista scorpius shrubs in European black pine stands. Forest Ecology and Management 126, 377–383.

Van Berkel, D. B. & Verburg, P. H. (2014). Spatial quantification and valuation of cultural ecosystem services in an agricultural landscape. Ecological Indicators, 37, 163–174.

van Klink, R., van der Plas, F., van Noordwijk, C. G. E., WallisDeVries, M. F. & Olff, H. (2015a). Effects of large herbivores on grassland arthropod diversity. Biological Reviews 90, 347-366.

van Klink, R., Schrama, M., Nolte, S., Bakker, J. P., WallisDeVries, M. F. & Berg, M. P. (2015b). Defoliation and soil compaction jointly drive large-herbivore grazing effects on plants and soil arthropods on clay soil. Ecosystems 18, 671-685.

van Klink, R., & WallisDeVries, M. F. (2018). Risks and opportunities of trophic rewilding for arthropod communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 373, 1–8.

van der Plas, F., Howison, R. A., Mpanza, N., Cromsigt, J. P. G. M. & Olff, H. (2016). Different-sized grazers have distinctive effects on plant functional composition of an African savannah. Journal of Ecology, 104, 864–875.

Varela, E., Górriz-Mifsud, E., Ruiz-Mirazo, J. & López-i-Gelats, F. (2018). Payment for Targeted Grazing: Integrating Local Shepherds into Wildfire Prevention. Forests, 9, 464.

Ward, S. E., Bardgett, R. D., McNamara, N. P., Adamson, J. K. & Ostle, N. J. (2007). Long-term consequences of grazing and burning on northern peatland carbon dynamics. Ecosystems 10, 1069-1083.

Warnock, A. D., Florentine, S. K., Graz, F. P. & Westbrooke, M. E. (2012). Short-term gain and long-term pain: Lessons learnt from the control of Lachnagrostis filiformis (fairy grass) in Victoria, Australia. Weed Biology and Management 12, 156–167.

Wehn, S., Anders Hovstad, K. & Johansen, L. (2018). The relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services and the effects of grazing cessation in semi-natural grasslands. Web Ecology 18, 55–65.

Zhiyanski, M., Glushkova, M., Ferezliev, A., Menichetti, L. & Leifeld, J. (2016). Carbon storage and soil property changes following afforestation in mountain ecosystems of the Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria. iForest – Biogeosciences and Forestry 9, 626-634.

Zimmerman, G. T. & Neuenschwander, L. F. (1984). Livestock grazing influences on Community Structure, Fire Intensity, and Fire Frequency within the Douglas-Fir/Ninebark Habitat Type. Journal of Range Management 37, 104–110.

Zhou, W. & Gong, P. (2005). Multiple-use tradeoffs in Swedish mountain region forests. Forest Policy and Economics, 7, 39–52.

Zhou, G., Zhou, X., He, Y., Shao, J., Hu, Z., Liu, R., Zhou, H. & Hosseinibai, S. (2017). Grazing intensity significantly affects belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 23, 1167-1179.

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.